Before we can list the ingredients, we must first understand the causes of hyperpigmentation:
One of the biggest skin conditions is that which results from exposure to the sun.
When the skin receives excess melanin, small dark spots can form. This is what sometimes produces the phenomenon known as hyperpigmentation.
There are many causes for the appearance of dark spots: excessive exposure to the sun, age, hormonal changes, genetic predispositions or even skin trauma.
Depending on the factor behind the spots, hyperpigmentation can appear in different forms:
Melasma: This disorder is linked to hormonal changes and is made worse by exposure to the sun. Melasma results in the appearance of brown sheets distributed symmetrically on the forehead, nose and cheeks.
Hyperpigmentation. This conditions occur as a result of trauma (cut, burn), infection, a skin reaction to a drug, or skin disorders such as eczema or acne. In these cases, the skin can sometimes remain darker on the affected areas.
Lentigos. These are small round or oval brown spots. Lentigos can be related to age or to excessive sun exposure. They testify to an inability of the epidermis to deal with the harmful effects of UV rays. People with fair skin, are more vulnerable to the sun, are most affected by lentigines.
Freckles. They usually occur in people with blond or red hair, eyes, and fair skin. Freckles or ephelids are small brown spots that darken and multiply when exposed to the sun.
It was recently discovered that there are five different mechanisms that work together causing the various hyperpigmentation issues mentioned above:
1 Basal cell membrane inflammation
Here is a list of best current ingredients for Dark spots
Antioxidants prevent dark spots
When our skin is exposed to UV rays or pollution, it is invaded by free radicals which oxidize our cells and weaken our epidermis, causing the appearance of wrinkles and dark spots in the process. Now, most of the anti-free radicals used in cosmetics come from fruits or vegetables, which also need to protect themselves from UV rays.
Vitamin E or tocopherol: derived from oils and oleaginous plants, it acts in synergy with Vitamin C, beta-carotene and selenium by protecting cell membranes.
A powerful antioxidant, vitamin C has the ability to regulate melanin production and stimulate collagen synthesis. It neutralizes free radicals and protects against external aggressions causing photoaging, making it an ally of choice against pigment spots and scars. Vitamin C improves skin texture and awakens dull complexions, and is also a recognized anti-aging active.
Polyphenols: present in plants, especially fruits and vegetables, these micronutrients have very effective antioxidant powers.
An example is Resveratrol: Ultraviolet rays cause oxidative stress and consequently damage the skin. Premature aging results in an alteration of the connective tissues of the dermis, which is particularly rich in collagen. However, resveratrol seems to act both on the protection of collagen, but also on the filtration of ultraviolet rays.
Vitamin K oxide is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin (factor II) and coagulation factors VII, IX and X. Vitamin K oxide blocks the formation of hemosiderin because it prevents extravasation of blood.
Its topical use is indicated in the prevention and treatment of postoperative hematomas
Also called vitamin B3, niacinamide stimulates collagen production and relieves many skin conditions. Anti-inflammatory and anti-aging, it visibly reduces pigment spots and scars.
Wild rose oil:
Rich in natural vitamin A, it is the regenerating vegetable oil par excellence, ideal for combating spots, scars or stretch marks. Also known as rosehip oil, it is an anti-aging oil mature skin loves
Fortunately, this ingredient does not present any contraindication. For optimal effectiveness, combine bakuchiol with the other elements of your beauty routine. You can use it as a cream, mask or serum. Choose the treatment best suited to your daily ritual in order to effectively remove imperfections from your skin. In addition to fighting acne, bakuchiol boosts collagen production and reduces fine lines. Reducing age spots, it makes the skin more elastic and firmer
Exfoliators, effective anti-dark spots
They accelerate cell renewal to drive out browned keratinocytes and allow better penetration of depigmenting active ingredients.
Azelaic acid is an organic acid found in grains, such as barley and rye. It has anti-inflammatory properties and can suppress melanin production in the skin. Azelaic acid is milder than some other acids, and Madan says it’s safe to use during pregnancy, unlike retinoids. This makes it a great option, as many women experience melasma – a type of hyperpigmentation – during pregnancy due to hormonal changes.
How to use: Azelaic acid can be found in prescription creams as well as in prescription gel. There are also lower quality options available in over-the-counter serums and creams. It can be applied daily at a 20% concentration to help with hyperpigmentation
Mandelic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) used in chemical peels, but it can also be found in over-the-counter cosmetics. A small 2019 study found that a bi-weekly chemical peel of mandelic acid reduced post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation more effectively than other ingredients like glycolic acid or phytic acid.
is an active recently introduced in the cosmetics sector due to its action in the treatment and prevention of hyperpigmentation of the skin.
It acts in inflammatory processes in which the production of melanin, the pigment that gives the skin its color, also participates.
By decreasing the synthesis of melanin, tranexamic acid acts as a depigmenting agent that prevents the formation of new melanin in hyperpigmented areas.
Sunscreen: What we want is a Zinc Oxide based sunscreen as it will irritate your skin, as chemical sunscreens do. You can also try using a tinted BB Cream with an spf of 15 or above
Please Remember Blue light protection as well: